Tips, Tricks, & Extras

Here are a few ways to simplify consumer definitions.

Decorating All Request Methods in a Class

To apply a decorator of this library across all methods of a uplink.Consumer subclass, you can simply decorate the class rather than each method individually:

 @uplink.timeout(60)
 class GitHub(uplink.Consumer):
     @uplink.get("/repositories")
     def get_repos(self):
         """Dump every public repository."""

     @uplink.get("/organizations")
     def get_organizations(self):
         """List all organizations."""

Hence, the consumer defined above is equivalent to the following, slightly more verbose definition:

class GitHub(uplink.Consumer):
    @uplink.timeout(60)
    @uplink.get("/repositories")
    def get_repos(self):
        """Dump every public repository."""

    @uplink.timeout(60)
    @uplink.get("/organizations")
    def get_organizations(self):
        """List all organizations."""

Adopting the Argument’s Name

Several function argument annotations accept a name parameter on construction. For instance, the Path annotation uses the name parameter to associate the function argument to a URI path parameter:

class GitHub(uplink.Consumer):
    @uplink.get("users/{username}")
    def get_user(self, username: uplink.Path("username")): pass

For such annotations, you can omit the name parameter to have the annotation adopt the name of its corresponding method argument.

For instance, from the previous example, we can omit naming the Path annotation since the corresponding argument’s name, username, matches the intended URI path parameter.

class GitHub(uplink.Consumer):
    @uplink.get("users/{username}")
    def get_user(self, username: uplink.Path): pass

Some annotations that support this behavior include: Path, uplink.Field, Part Header, and uplink.Query.

Annotating Your Arguments For Python 2.7

There are several ways to annotate arguments. Most examples in this documentation use function annotations, but this approach is unavailable for Python 2.7 users. Instead, you should either utilize the method annotation args or use the optional args parameter of the HTTP method decorators (e.g., uplink.get).

The args argument

New in version v0.5.0.

The HTTP method decorators (e.g., uplink.get) support an optional positional argument args, which accepts a list of annotations, arranged in the same order as their corresponding function arguments,

 class GitHub(uplink.Consumer):
     @uplink.get(args=(uplink.Url, uplink.Path))
     def get_commit(self, commits_url, sha): pass

or a mapping of argument names to annotations:

 class GitHub(uplink.Consumer):
     @uplink.get(args={"commits_url": uplink.Url, "sha": uplink.Path})
     def get_commit(self, commits_url, sha): pass

Function Annotations (Python 3 only)

When using Python 3, you can use these classes as function annotations (PEP 3107):

 class GitHub(uplink.Consumer):
     @uplink.get
     def get_commit(self, commit_url: uplink.Url, sha: uplink.Path):
         pass

Annotating __init__() Arguments

Function annotations like Query and Header can be used with constructor arguments of a Consumer subclass. When a new consumer instance is created, the value of these arguments are applied to all requests made through that instance.

For example, the following consumer accepts the API access token as the constructor argument access_token:

class GitHub(uplink.Consumer):

    def __init__(self, access_token: uplink.Query):
        ...

    @uplink.post("/user")
    def update_user(self, **info: Body):
        """Update the authenticated user"""

Now, all requests made from an instance of this consumer class will be authenticated with the access token passed in at initialization:

github = GitHub("my-github-access-token")

# This request will include the `access_token` query parameter set from
# the constructor argument.
github.update_user(bio="Beam me up, Scotty!")

The Consumer’s _inject() Method

As an alternative to Annotating __init__() Arguments and Persistence Across Requests from a Consumer, you can achieve a similar behavior with more control by using the Consumer._inject() method. With this method, you can calculate request properties within plain old python methods.

class TodoApp(uplink.Consumer):

    def __init__(self, username, password)
        # Create an access token
        api_key = create_api_key(username, password)

        # Inject it.
        self._inject(uplink.Query("api_key").with_value(api_key))

Similar to the annotation style, request properties added with _inject() method are applied to all requests made through the consumer instance.